In ‘Solar’ Category
Solar sells: Australian PV research and innovation
From PERCs to heliostats to improving PV quality, Andrew Blakers from the Australian National University describes high-impact innovations that found their way through Australian-led, government-supported research.
Through consistent government grants for innovation over the past 40 years, Australia has punched far above its weight in renewable energy innovation, particularly when it comes to photovoltaics (PV). The potential benefits for the Australian economy are substantial. PV now constitutes about a quarter of new electrical generation capacity installed worldwide each year; wind comprises another quarter; and coal, oil, gas, nuclear, hydro and all other renewables combined constitute the other half. In Australia, PV and wind comprise practically all new generation capacity.READ MORE »
Support for research and innovation lies at the heart of accelerated growth of the renewable energy industry. It supports later-stage commercialisation directly through technology development. Additionally, university research groups underpin undergraduate and postgraduate education and training of engineers and scientists.
High-impact Australian innovations
What are some of the ways Australia has contributed to solar research, and what are some of the commercial successes? Here are eight examples of high-impact innovations that emerged from Australian-led R&D.
1. PERC SOLAR CELLS
The PERC silicon solar cell is an Australian invention which is now used in about half of new solar cell production lines worldwide. It’s set to soon dominate the worldwide solar industry, according to the International Technology Roadmap for Photovoltaics. So far this is the most successful renewable energy technology to emerge from Australia.
BT Imaging’s advanced photo-luminescence characterisation systems for research and industry emerged from the University of NSW. They enable researchers and industrial engineers to visually assess silicon quality in great detail and to modify processes to maximise quality.
Read the full article in ReNew 136.
ATA member profile: Making sinewaves in Australia
Long-time ATA member and software engineer Rod Scott continues to expand the work of Selectronic, his family business which 35 years ago created Australia’s first inverter. He talks to Kulja Coulston.
The success of the renewable energy industry has often tracked along a “sinewave sales curve”, according to Rod Scott, the products and business manager of inverter manufacturer Selectronic. “It’s standing on its own feet more now, but there were times when government program early announcements could dry up business for five months at a time,” he says of the ‘boom and bust’ cycle that has typified the renewable sector in Australia.READ MORE »
Together with his brother Ken, Rod Scott is continuing the work of his pioneering family business which has been part of the local industry from the beginning. Selectronic produced their first inverter in 1981: “It was a 360 watt DC to AC square wave inverter,” explains Rod. “We started small and it grew from there.” In 1990 Selectronic developed one of the earliest model sinewave inverters.
“It was then that our bigger models started to come out with energy-management functionality. It was all off-grid back then,with Australia being such a sparse country—storage for on-grid systems would have been a very strange concept!” It was in the early 2000s when they developed their first grid-interactive inverter, as that side of the market started to take off.
Rod’s parents established Selectronic in 1964 as a contract manufacturing business and ran it out of the Scotts’ backyard bungalow in Boronia, Victoria, before moving into a factory. The company cut its teeth custom-making transformers and inductors for the local electronics industry before launching its own electronics products division. Decades later, Selectronic continues to manufacture products locally, when most manufacturing has moved offshore.
“We were one of the first to make inverters in Australia, and we might also be one of the last.” Employing around 35 to 40 staff at its Chirnside Park factory in Victoria, Selectronic indirectly employs another 100 people in Australia through its supply chain, and will soon open an international office in Johannesburg. “We can’t get everything made here, particularly the specialist electronics, but we support local if we can, as it gives us flexibility and control over the quality of the product.”
Research and development has underpinned the company’s success for half a century, explains Rod: “Our future products look like what our customers demand, and it’s always been that way. When we developed the SP PRO in 2008, we already had 28 years of off-grid experience.” Selectronic’s continued commitment to the traditional offgrid market is also paying off, as the flexibility and reliability of those systems is relevant to the growing solar hybrid market. A few years ago a German company, KACO New Energy, rebadged Selectronic’s 5 kW SP PRO under their own label.
Rod has been an active ATA member and committed advertiser in ReNew. He is also personally committed to renewable technology at home, and is running off a 5 kW SP PRO with about 2.5 kW of solar photovoltaic panels. At a recent party none of his guests noticed the suburb-wide power outage: “I had to take everyone out onto the street before they believed me that we were the only ones still with power.”
This member profile is published in ReNew 136. Buy your copy here.
Store and deliver: Energy storage market heats up
The energy storage sector is heating up. Lance Turner takes a quick look at where the industry is heading.
A decade ago, seeing solar panels on homes was a rare occurrence, yet now you will find them on more than one million Australian homes. Indeed, solar has become completely mainstream, no longer just for greenies and those living remotely.READ MORE »
While solar power works well to reduce dependence on the grid at peak times, the recent or pending removal of decent feed-in tariffs for many solar owners has meant that many are now looking at energy storage. A battery system means that system owners can reduce their low-valued exports to the grid and instead store the energy for later use, offsetting expensive grid imports, and potentially saving money, or at least shifting the balance towards greater self-sufficiency.
Traditionally, solar battery systems have been designed to suit the individual installation, but for grid-connected storage that is no longer a requirement. All you need is a system that can store an appropriate amount of energy and be able to supply that to your house when needed—it doesn’t need to cover all demands of the home at all times.
To this end, we have seen a proliferation of domestic-oriented energy storage systems (ESS) of late. They vary in size, shape and features, but all are designed to allow the homeowner to take better control of their energy generation and use, reducing bills and, in some cases, providing a degree of backup against grid failure.
Not all systems are designed for grid backup, but this is becoming more common as manufacturers realise that customers want their systems to be as flexible as possible, even potentially allowing them to eventually go off-grid altogether.
Read the full article in ReNew 135.
How green is my solar?
How long does it take to pay back the energy used in the production of solar + battery systems and how much of an effect do they have on the greenness of the grid? The ATA’s Andrew Reddaway investigates.
By generating clean electricity, solar systems reduce the amount of coal and gas that’s burned in power stations. This reduces pollutants and greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, which cause disease and man-made climate change. Fossil fuels also require extractive processes such as fracking and open-cut coal mining, which have led to negative effects on the environment such as land degradation, water contamination and mine fires.READ MORE »
It seems clear that installing a solar system will have a positive effect on the environment. But with several different types of system now available, including systems with batteries, how do they compare in terms of the environment?
Grid-connected without batteries
The vast majority of existing solar systems are connected to the grid and have no batteries. Your solar panels’ electricity is first used by on-site appliances, and any excess is exported to the grid to be consumed by your neighbours. Any shortfalls are supplied from the grid. This setup is relatively cheap and efficient, using a simple inverter that relies on the grid for its stability. However, it’s not very self-sufficient, because if a grid blackout occurs the inverter will switch off. (Although not always; some rare grid-connect inverters can use direct solar generation to supply household appliances in a blackout, even without batteries; for example, the Nedap PowerRouter.)
Since the grid has minimal energy storage, whenever your solar system is operating, a centralised power station will reduce its output to compensate. Each kilowatt-hour of solar generation reduces power station generation accordingly. In fact the benefit is even greater, as the power station must supply not only the end-user demand but also the losses incurred in the power lines, which can be over 20% for remote locations. Some people argue that because coal-fired power stations are inflexible, they’ll keep consuming coal at the same rate regardless of solar generation. Actually they are responsive enough; for example, Loy Yang A in Victoria can halve its output in less than an hour. Spread out over a geographically large area, solar systems’ overall impact is relatively gradual even when a cloud front arrives; this is forecast and managed by the grid operator in five-minute intervals.
With enough panels you can generate more electricity than you consume over a whole year, with your night-time imports more than compensated for by your daytime exports.
Read the full article in ReNew 135.
Solar panel buyers guide 2016
We’ve contacted photovoltaics manufacturers for details on warranties, cell types, size and price to help you decide which solar panels are best for you.
Large-scale manufacturing of solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has led to significant price reductions in recent years, to the point where they have become a common sight in the Australia urban landscape. From powering domestic dwellings to providing power for camping or even hot water, PV panels are everywhere.READ MORE »
Or almost everywhere. While there are well over a million homes in Australia sporting solar arrays of various sizes, there are still many homes without solar.
This article aims to provide up-to-date guidance for those people looking at purchasing a solar installation, whether that’s a new system or an upgrade. It includes types of solar panels and factors to consider when buying them. The guide focuses on PV panels only. For information on other components that may be used in a solar installation (e.g. inverters), system sizing and economic returns, see ‘More info’ at the end of the article.
Types of solar panels: monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film
Solar panels are made from many solar cells connected together, with each solar cell producing DC (direct current) electricity when sunlight hits it. There are three common types of solar cells: monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film.
Both monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells are made from slices, or wafers, cut from blocks of silicon. Monocrystalline cells start life as a single large crystal known as a boule, which is ‘grown’ in a slow and energy-intensive process. Polycrystalline cells are cut from blocks of cast silicon rather than single large crystals.
Thin-film technology uses a different technique that involves the deposition of layers of different semiconducting and conducting materials directly onto metal, glass or even plastic. The most common thin-film panels use amorphous (non-crystalline)silicon and are found everywhere from watches and calculators right through to large grid-connected PV arrays.
Other types of thin-film materials include CIGS (copper indium gallium di-selenide) and CdTe (cadmium telluride). These tend to have higher efficiencies than amorphous silicon cells, with CIGS cells rivalling crystalline cells for efficiency. However, the materials used in some of these alternatives are more toxic than silicon—cadmium, particularly, is a quite toxic metal.
Read the full article in ReNew 134
Click here to download the full buyers guide tables in PDF format.
Solar + battery trial in NZ
Combining PV and battery storage is often touted as a win-win for householders and energy distributors, eliminating peak demand and providing a way to better use the solar generation on-site. Lindsey Roke shares his household’s experience with a trial initiated by his local lines company in Auckland, New Zealand.
In late 2013, our power lines company initiated a PV and battery pilot scheme for households in the Auckland region. The aim was to test how PV combined with batteries could be made to work to the advantage of both householders (by reducing costs and providing backup energy in the case of grid outages) and the grid (by providing additional energy to the network, reducing peaks and providing a way to optimise PV integration into the network).READ MORE »
My wife and I decided to get involved in the scheme and in late January 2014, Vector (the lines company) installed a PV system with battery storage at our house. Almost two years on, there have been issues along the way, but overall it’s been a useful field trial, both for Vector’s and our understanding of the complexities of running such a system.
A new lease on energy
Vector offered the system with an installation cost of NZ$2000 and a monthly rental in proportion to the solar PV system size. Three PV system sizes were available—3 kW, 4 kW and 5 kW—each combined with a lithium iron phosphate battery of 11.6 kWh, and a 4.5 kW inverter (de-rated to 4 kW for enhanced reliability). We opted for a 3 kW PV system and a rental period of 12.5 years. For this sized system and rental period, the monthly rental (for 150 months) was NZ$70, covering maintenance and support. At the end of the lease we will own the panels, but Vector will remove the inverter and battery. Given the technology changes likely over that time, we thought this would be a reasonable option.
Of 290 installations in the pilot, ours was the 150th to be completed.
For us, the primary motivation was to shift to net zero energy (or better). Having designed and helped build our all-electric house in the 70s, we have since made a variety of efficiency upgrades including electric-boosted solar hot water (described in ReNew 97), energy-efficient lighting, a high efficiency space heating heat pump and upgraded under-floor and ceiling insulation (the walls were insulated from day one). Our average consumption is now about 7.4 kWh per day, for two of us and a some-time boarder (he’s a flight steward and often away).
When it came to sizing the PV installation, we wanted to cover this energy consumption, but weren’t necessarily expecting to save money over what we would otherwise have paid for electricity. Given our location in Auckland (at a similar latitude to Bendigo in Victoria), a correctly oriented unshaded PV array would be expected to generate an average of 4 kWh per day per kilowatt installed. Thus, we predicted that even the smallest system offered, 3 kW, would make us net exporters over a year, generating around 12 kWh per day on average.
Read the full article including issues and results in ReNew 134.
Off-grid wind and solar
It’s a windy place near Canberra, and Chris Kelman is taking good advantage of that! He describes the evolution of his impressive off-grid wind and solar system — and the avid meter-watching that goes with it.
In a quest to demonstrate the possibility of living a fossil-fuel-free life, I have now made a couple of attempts at setting up my house to run on ‘home-grown’ energy.READ MORE »
My first project, back in 1987, used home-made solar hot water panels, a ‘massive’ 90 watts of PV plus a 1 kW Dunlite wind generator (pictured on the cover of Soft Technology 32–33, October 1989; Soft Technology was the original name of ReNew). At this stage, renewable energy technology was in its infancy and everything was DIY, including building an 18 m tripod tower for the turbine (overcoming a fear of heights was a personal fringe benefit). On this basic system I did manage to run lights, computer, TV and stereo, but there were thin times, of course.
These days, home energy systems are more like Lego — you just plug and play. So with a move back to the bush near Canberra a few years ago, I decided to do it all again, but this time with sufficient capacity to run a standard 230 V AC all-electric house, workshop, water pumps—and an electric vehicle.
The house I purchased had been set up pretty well as a passive-solar home, though it was connected to the grid at the time. It has a north-facing aspect, good insulation and a lot of (double-glazed) windows allowing winter sun to maintain a cosy slate floor. The result is a very stable environment for most of the year.
Energy production—phase 1
In phase one of my new project,in 2012, I installed 3 kW of PV with a Sunny Island off-grid inverter and 40 kWh of VRLA (valve-regulated lead-acid) batteries. Initially, hedging my bets, I configured it as a grid-connected system, with the grid acting as a backup ‘generator’ when required.
After a few months I realised that I rarely needed to use the grid and, as I owned a small antiquated petrol generator from my previous project, I decided it was time to cut the umbilical cord. This turned out to be a rather amusing process. My local energy provider didn’t seem to have an appropriate form for ‘removal of service’ and was bemused about why I would ask them to take the meters away. It was all a bit much for them. Even after the process was completed, I would still occasionally discover lost-looking meter readers around the back of the house!
The weather in this region is well known for its reliable solar insolation, apart from some lean months in mid-winter. Fortunately we are well supplied with wind power as well, as indicated by the Capital wind farm only a few kilometres away.
To confirm the wind resource, I set up a Davis weather station on a 12 m mast at my proposed turbine site and undertook a six-month wind survey. The results from this were compared with historical records from the area and a good correlation was found. This was enough evidence to convince me that wind power backup, particularly to cover the lean winter months, was the best option for my system.
Read the full article about Chris’s impressive off-grid setup in ReNew 134.
The double-glazed ceiling: Women in renewables
When asked why it is important to have a gender balanced cabinet, Canada’s Prime Minister replied, “Because it’s 2015.” Sarah Coles looks around in 2015, wonders why Australian women are under-represented in the renewables sector and speaks with leaders in the field about ways to address the imbalance.
LAST month the Clean Energy Council (CEC), the peak body for renewables in Australia, held a Women in Renewables lunch as part of the All-Energy Conference in Melbourne. The lunch was organised by Alicia Webb, Policy Manager at the CEC. Roughly 20,000 people work in the renewables sector in Australia. Men outnumber women in all fields: solar, wind engineering, energy efficiency, hydro, bioenergy, energy storage, geothermal and marine. At the 2015 Australian Clean Energy Summit hosted by the CEC there were 93 speakers, 11 of whom were women.READ MORE »
Women are generally under-represented across science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, of the 2.7 million people with higher level STEM qualifications in 2010–11, men accounted for around 81%.
There are myriad reasons for the low numbers of women in renewables. Gender disparity starts early with cultural stereotypes and lack of encouragement from teachers. Around 25% of girls are not doing any maths subjects in their last years at high school. When I was in year ten and acing science, my biology teacher said to my mother, “Sarah is good now but her grades will suffer when she starts noticing boys.” Returning home my mother (holder of a science degree) delivered a succinct verdict, ”Mr P. can get stuffed.” But discrimination like this is still common.
Some people think a change in governance is needed; that if there are more women in leadership roles this will have a trickle-down effect. As of 2014, women made up 21% of the Rio Tinto board and 22% of Qantas. Stats like these are often bandied about as examples of progress but to my mind if you take a big piece of pie and cut it in half you end up with two equal portions, not one piddley 22% sized piece and one 78% chunk. I decided to speak with some women at the top of their game to find out what should be done to even up the portions.
Miwa Tominaga knows what it is like to face gender discrimination at work. Miwa’s first full-time job was as the only female electronics technician at a radio transmitter site. She moved to Victoria to pursue a career in the sector, first working as a CAD drafter for electrical building services and then landing a job in renewables doing technical support at a company that manufactures electronic solar charge controllers. While she was working she studied renewable energy through an online course. When she provided phone support, hearing a woman, people would often ask to be put through to someone technical.
Later, installing solar panels at Going Solar, a woman said to Miwa, “Don’t take this the wrong way, but you do know what you are doing, don’t you?” The answer is a resounding yes. Miwa won 2014 CEC’s awards for ‘best install under 15kW’ and ‘best stand-alone system’. She currently works at a solar inverter manufacturer doing sales and tech support: “because it’s a worldwide company there are lots of opportunities.”
When I ask Miwa about discrimination she says, “A lot of women have experienced renewables being a male-dominated industry.” Miwa gave a speech about it at the CEC lunch. “I think it makes a huge difference if you’re working with men that see you as an equal not as an assistant. There have definitely been times when I have been judged for being a woman, especially by customers.” But she says that most of the time people are very supportive or indifferent towards her gender. “They say, ‘Oh wow, you’re gonna get on the roof by yourself!’”
Miwa thinks a top-down approach is a game changer. Danish legislation requires companies to work actively towards gender equality. It is one of the countries that has legislated for quotas around female board representation. Norway passed a law in 2005 requiring companies to appoint boards that include at least 40% women. Malaysia passed a law requiring female board representation of at least 30% by 2016. Miwa thinks Australia needs quotas too. “Start from the top at the board level. I do some volunteering for Beyond Zero Emissions (BZE) and I know that they make sure the board is about 50% women, 50% men. It makes a difference when they start at the top. It sets an example and really gives women opportunity.”
Emma Lucia felt empowered by encouraging teachers at school, and went on to study Mechanical Engineering and Arts at Monash University. Emma says she became interested in renewables when she was at university and studied abroad. “When I was finishing university everyone went into either automotive, mining, or oil and gas. My first job was actually supposed to be as a mining consulting engineer! I remember sitting in an environmental engineering class, which I did as an elective in my final year of university and thinking, ‘Is this [mining] what I really want to do with my life?’ I wanted to have a positive influence on the environment not a negative one.” The mining consultant role fell through and Emma worked as a building services engineer doing environmentally sustainable designs. “Through that I knew energy is where I wanted to be. I wanted to be in renewable energy. I could see that that would be a game changer.”
Early on in her career she felt constrained by the attitudes in the male-dominated engineering field. “In one company the more interesting work was often offered to my male colleague ahead of me,” says Emma. She found support, though, from other colleagues, who refused to see her sidelined. But it was difficult having to fight such battles, and in the end she decided a sideways transition was needed. “I now work in a more people- oriented role, but still using my skills, and in a renewable energy company. It’s been a good move,” says Emma.
She believes that having support mechanisms within organisations is a crucial step in overcoming discrimination. Emma says that “sometimes women may be a little bit more self doubting” so support from the organisation can help. “Also you need to trust yourself and trust in your abilities and really back yourself.” She adds, “Find a mentor or trusted advisor or someone you can bounce ideas off of who can help you cut through when you have problems in your career.” Emma thinks a key to gender diversity is to network with like-minded women and to get more women on boards, “I’m on the board of the Australian Institute of Energy and I actively look to increase the diversity of our committee members and speakers. I feel very strongly that change doesn’t happen in isolation.”
Dr Katrina Swalwell is a senior wind engineer and former Secretary of the Australasian Wind Engineering Society. After school, Katrina was all set to go into science at university but happened to do work experience at CSIRO with an engineer who said, “Why don’t you go and become an engineer and get paid more for doing the same job?” She completed a Science and Mechanical Engineering degree followed by six months study in Denmark looking at wind turbines. At university, about 20% of the undergraduates in engineering were women. “The vast majority of my fellow students were really supportive, nice guys. I had one case where a guy complained openly that I got better marks than him because I was a female. My friends and I just laughed because I did preparations for the pracs and he never did, so we thought that might have a bit more to do with it.”
Katrina says that, while she has always been supported in her career, most of her female friends who went through in engineering are no longer working in technical roles: ”The opportunities aren’t necessarily there. There are more opportunities in management or other things. They’ve gone into a whole variety of roles, a lot of them technically related, like one is a patent lawyer and one does electricity market modelling; she would call herself a modeller rather than an engineer now.” It isn’t all doom and gloom: “I think renewables is a great industry in that it is relatively new so there isn’t that entrenched resistance to females in the roles.”
Katrina says flexibility is key to attracting more women to male-dominated roles. For example, in Denmark there is state-supplied childcare. “The company that I work for is German. They’ve got laws now where there is six months paternity leave just for the father, so it has really prompted guys to take some time out.” Taking time off becomes more accepted for everybody as a result.
Katrina says girls need to be informed about their options, “If I hadn’t had that mentor when I was in year 12, I probably wouldn’t have been an engineer.” Like Miwa and Emma, Katrina sees boards as an important catalyst for change. “I’ve been involved in the women on boards group. They encourage women to consider taking board roles. They provide a service for companies that are looking to increase their gender diversity.”
Mentoring, support for diversity, workplace policies that support flexible working hours, baseline measurements and representation targets are some of the ideas for tackling the under-representation of women in renewables. At last year’s All-Energy Conference there were only three women speakers out of a total of 30. We still have a long way to go but change is afoot. The Clean Energy Council has introduced a policy of no all-male panels at the 2016 conference.
The renewables industry in Australia is working hard to accelerate the advancement of women but it needs to get gender equality targets enshrined in law. We need to address gender pay gaps, prioritise the issue and create accountability. We often hear politicians speaking about renewables targets but the time is ripe for them to address the issue of gender targets across this booming sector because, as Emma puts it, “Renewables are going to play a significant role in Australia’s growth so encouraging diversity in renewables will ensure better outcomes for the future of our country.”
Lego v Barbie
Miwa: “I was definitely a Lego kid. I ended up playing with a lot of my brother’s cars and stuff. I think my Mum stopped buying me Barbies because I didn’t play with them!”
Emma: “I did have a Lego kit and another one of my favourite toys was my Barbie Ferrari car.”
Katrina: “I had a Lego technical kit, the one with motors, so I could play with that. I was encouraged to explore whatever I wanted to do but I think my mother was still very surprised when I chose to do engineering
Image: ”The future is bright fellow women of renewable energy.” Miwa Tominaga delivering a rousing speech at the
2015 All Energy Conference. Photo courtesy of the Clean Energy Council.
The future of energy: Large-scale solar worldwide
Not just good for the planet, large-scale solar is now often the cheapest option. Lance Turner looks at some of the impressive projects powering up right now.
As the world’s governments slowly wake up to the reality of climate change and the need to shift energy generation away from fossil fuels to renewables, the corporate world is just getting on and doing it.READ MORE »
Large-scale wind farms have become common, but large-scale solar farms are less so. However, this seems to be changing, with multi-megawatt and even gigawatt-scale solar generation plants being developed at a considerable pace.
Cheaper than the fossils
The main driver behind this seems to be that solar has actually become one of the cheapest forms of energy generation. In many cases, solar plants are proving to be cheaper than gas, nuclear and even coal-fired power plants, especially when the complete life cycle and environmental factors are taken into account. Indeed, recent tenders in both Chile and India for energy generation have been won by solar because it was the cheapest option. The Chilean auction was open to all technologies, yet solar won the majority of the generation contracts, with other renewables taking the rest. Not a single megawatt of generation capacity went to fossil fuel projects. Further, the auction produced the lowest ever price for unsubsidised solar at just US 6.5 c/kWh!
The huge US renewable energy development company SunEdison won the entire 500 MW of solar capacity on auction in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh with a record low unsubsidised tariff for India of 4.63 rupee/kWh (US 7.1 c/kWh)—lower than new coal generation, particularly when using imported coal.
It’s not just in the developing world that solar is beating fossil fuels. In October, an auction in Austin, Texas, resulted in 300 MW of large-scale solar PV being contracted at less than US 4 c/kWh. Even before tax credits, the price is still under US 6 c/kWh—beating gas and new coal plants.
While many of these contracts involved photovoltaics, other forms of solar generation such as concentrated solar thermal systems also fared well, gaining some contracts and producing prices under US 10 c/kWh.
Read the full article in ReNew 134.
A recycling round-up
Lance Turner considers the evolving recycling options for some of the common technologies in households: solar panels, lights and batteries.
Solar panel recycling
Up until recently there have been no official schemes for recycling solar panels in Australia. However, as the number of broken and otherwise failed panels begins to grow, so has the need for recycling.
But how much solar panel waste is there at present, and what are we looking at down the track when the current explosion of solar panel installations come to the end of their working life?
Although figures are hard to come by, one typical example is that of Japan, which has seen considerable growth in PV installations in recent years. According to the Japanese Ministry of the Environment, by 2040 770,000 tonnes of solar panels will need to be recycled. The ministry has stated that, in conjunction with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and industry organisations, it will begin to implement measures for “removal, transportation and processing of solar power generation equipment” before the end of this fiscal year, in March 2016 (from www.bit.ly/1PwRFfC).
In Europe, requirements have already been added to the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directive, bringing in a take-back and recycling scheme to deal with solar panel waste. The program, PV Cycle (www.pvcycle.org), provides fixed collection points, collection services for large quantities, and collection via distributors.
The WEEE directive means that solar panel manufacturers not only have to ensure collection and recycling of their products when they have reached their end of life, they will also be required to ensure the financial future of PV waste management.
Looking at Australia, there is currently (as of March 2015) 4.1 GW of installed capacity of solar PV. Assuming around 250 watts per panel (a common size), that’s around 16 million solar panels. With an approximate weight of 18 kg per panel, you are looking at 288,000 tonnes of solar panels, or around 11,500 tonnes per year (assuming a lifespan of 25 years) needing to be recycled. Of course, many PV panels will have a greater lifespan, while other, lesser quality panels will die sooner, so these figures are really just ballpark.
Regardless, that’s a great deal of materials needing to be recycled, most of which is glass, silicon cells (a glass-like material) and aluminium.
Aluminium framing is easily recycled in existing aluminium smelters. However, without a system of collection, transportation and dismantling of solar panels, these materials are currently going to waste, usually ending up in landfill.
Read the full article in ReNew 133.
Farming Renewably: Reaping the benefits
One person/farm can make a difference: David Hamilton describes how his farm’s sustainable conversion cut carbon, benefited the landscape and turned a profit.READ MORE »
I’ve read many inspiring articles in ReNew from individuals trying to live more sustainably and lessen their impact on the planet. This article takes a slightly different approach–a rural perspective–to demonstrate that it can be commercially viable to run a farming enterprise using systems that are truly renewable, whether that’s for water, electricity, housing, food, livestock, pasture or wildlife.
Our journey to sustainable farming began in 1993, when my wife Roberta and I purchased a 60-acre property in the south-west of WA with the twin objectives of restoring the degraded land and becoming as self-reliant as possible. The land included pasture that was totally lifeless and neglected, along with a dam, two winter streams, old gravel pits and two areas of magnificent remnant native forest. We wanted to be independent for water, electricity and as much of our food as was practical. Withe fewer bills to pay, we could work fewer hours off the farm–which was very appealing.
As a registered nurse with no farming experience, I was on a vertical learnign curve. Luckily, Roberta has a dairy farming background and, with her accounting experience, is a wizard at making a dollar go a long way.
When we began, we were both working full-time. We spent the first two years establishing a gravity-fed water supply, preparing the hosue and shed sites, and fencing the property, including to protect remnant bush from planned livestock. We also planted over a thousand native trees and shrubs, plus a few ‘feral’ trees for their air conditioning and fire-retardant properties.
Read the full article in ReNew 132.
Going hybrid: Adding batteries to grid-connected solar
Going off-grid may not be for everyone; a better route may be to ‘go hybrid’, by adding batteries to grid-connected solar. Andrew Reddaway explores the options.
The solar battery industry is on the verge of disruptive change. Traditionally, large batteries were only seen in houses at off-grid locations such as Moora Moora (see box on the solar hybrid training course held there, which I attended earlier this year and which provided input to this article).READ MORE »
For off-grid systems, reliability is crucial; failure prompts an emergency call to the solar installer, so such systems have been designed conservatively using proven lead-acid batteries.
Meanwhile, in towns and cities, grid-connected solar systems have gone mainstream. As feed-in tariffs for solar export have dropped far below the rates paid for grid electricity, householders are looking for ways to cut bills by making better use of their excess solar generation. One answer is to add batteries to create a hybrid system: a grid-connected solar system with batteries either for backup or load-shifting.
This article gives an overview of current hybrid technology and the options available for adding batteries to an existing grid-connected solar system.
Different batteries for hybrid
A hybrid solar system is tough on batteries. Unlike an off-grid system that may store enough energy to last multiple days, a hybrid system’s entire usable capacity will be charged and discharged daily. This requires a battery that can handle fast discharge rates at high levels of efficiency. Lithium batteries fit the bill, and have already become dominant in consumer electronics, power tools and electric cars. Compared to lead-acid, they are also smaller, lighter, don’t require monthly maintenance and don’t emit hydrogen gas. The only things holding them back in the solar market are unfamiliarity and price.
The recently announced lithium Powerwall battery from Tesla is priced well below previous products and has a 10-year warranty. Traditional lead-acid batteries cannot compete with this new benchmark, so it’s expected that systems will start to move away from them. Hybrid systems are now expected to become viable on pure economics in a few years or less. Early adopters are already installing lithium hybrid systems, as are some who value maintaining power during a blackout.
Read the full article in ReNew 132.
Low cost solar heating: Using free heat from your roof
After reading an article in ReNew, Alan Cotterill decided to design a closed loop heat exchange system to supplement his home’s heating with free heat from the roof. A couple of iterations later, he describes the resulting effective system.
In early 2014 I commenced efforts to use the heat from our roof cavity to contribute to winter heating. I decided on a closed loop system, which would take in room air, duct it through the roof and return it to the house at a higher temperature. A closed loop system avoids the issue of drawing down insulation fibres and dust from the roof cavity.READ MORE »
Useful attic temperatures
My home combined with our very cold but sunny winter days in Wagga seemed especially suitable for this system to run with reasonable efficiency. The house has a grey Colorbond steel roof and a large roof area relative to the internal floorplan, due to a high pitched roof and the wide verandahs and garage being included under the main roof structure. The east-west orientation of the long axis of the house and the north-facing roof area being covered with solar panels have not prevented useful attic temperatures. Measured 60 cm below the peak of the roof cavity, the average maximum attic temperature was 28 °C for the two weeks starting 16 July 2014 and 37.8 °C for the two weeks from 19 August 2014.
A first attempt
My first prototype forced room air through a system of ducts in the roof using a centrifugal exhaust fan mounted on its side on a shelf in the laundry. The air was distributed to three 12-metre runs of 100 mm flexible aluminium ducting before returning the air to the house. The returned air was reasonably heated but the total volume of returned air was inadequate to contribute significantly to winter heating.
Read the full article in ReNew 132.
Revolving donations fund 35kW of community solar
A people-powered movement is helping to fast track Australia’s renewable energy revolution.READ MORE »
A recent solar PV installation at Camden Park, SA brings the total amount installed by CORENA’s Quick Win community solar projects so far to 35kW. Another 8kW has been added by recipient organisations in conjunction with these projects, giving an overall result of 43kW installed. Two of the projects have also included replacing lights with LED alternatives.
CORENA (Citizens Own Renewable Energy Network Australia Incorporated) provides interest-free loans to pay for solar installations and energy efficiency measures. The loans are repaid over about five years out of the resultant savings on power bills, meaning that non-profit organisations can reduce their carbon emissions without diverting funds from their core purpose. As the projects ‘pay for themselves’, the original donations are then used over and over again in new projects.
CORENA has now funded Quick Win projects for four non-profit organisations in three states: Tulgeen Disability Services in Bega (NSW), Gawler Community House (SA), Beechworth Montessori School (Vic), and Camden Community Centre (SA). The next project in line, in Nannup (WA), is already half-funded, and a community centre in Ravenshoe (Qld) is queued as Project 6.
“After just four projects the growth potential of our revolving funding model is looking quite exciting,” said CORENA spokesperson Margaret Hender. “The four projects completed so far have cost a total of $63,460. Climate-concerned citizens donated most of that, but $10,438 of it came from loan repayments from completed projects.
“The first project was funded entirely from donations, but already $5,000 of that loan has been paid back into the revolving pool of funds,” said Ms Hender. “As the number of completed projects increases, an increasing proportion of the cost of new projects is covered by loan repayments. Eventually the revolving loan repayments will cover 90%, or even 100%, of the cost of new projects.
“I could talk to politicians until I’m blue in the face in the hope of getting better renewable energy policies, and never know if I’ve had any effect,” said Ms Hender. “But if I put $100, or $10 a week, for example, into solar panels on a roof somewhere, within a matter of weeks my money will be reducing carbon emissions and keep on doing so forever as it is used again and again in future projects.”
For more information visit www.corenafund.org.au
Not just transport: Your EV’s other life
Electric vehicle by day, powering your home by night? Kristian Handberg explains how EVs could help in the energy storage equation.
For those with solar PV systems getting paid next to nothing for their surplus generation, the day is fast approaching when they might store this energy for later use. But should they use a stationary battery or an electric vehicle?READ MORE »
The situation for stationary batteries is changing rapidly. Battery costs are coming down and electricity market rules are changing to accommodate new business models for energy sellers who use storage1. Solar homeowners may soon be offered energy supply agreements that include a battery located on their property but owned and operated by their electricity retailer2. Homeowners will see the benefits via reduced electricity costs and supply agreements that avoid the complexity and risk of owning and operating a grid-connected energy storage system.
Right now, however, solar homeowners must deal with these challenges themselves. High upfront costs and long paybacks, risks associated with new technology and warranty commitments, and complicated energy management strategies are all reasons to delay on battery investment or look for alternatives.
One of these alternatives may be to use an electric vehicle as storage—if an electric car works for your transport needs, why not also use it to get better value from your solar investment.
While vehicle charging can be managed in line with solar production, at present there are no electric cars in the Australian market that allow charge to be extracted for other uses. Equipment is sold in Japan that allows emergency backup power to be obtained directly from the vehicle (see box on this page), along with vehicle-to-home (V2H) charging solutions that can provide backup and solar PV optimisation. Combining a standard charger with a bi-directional inverter (supporting both the vehicle charging and discharging) and an energy management controller, these V2H systems currently cost around $1000/kW (or around $4000 for a 16A V2H unit, as compared to $500–$1000 for a standard 16 A charger).
These costs can be expected to decrease as the technology improves and the plug-in vehicle market grows. Driven by these changes and the results of trials currently underway, the analysts Navigant are forecasting that V2X-enabled vehicles (vehicles which support discharging activities) will be launched internationally in 2016 alongside improved V2H systems3.
As the technology evolves, there will be opportunities for householders, within the context of wider considerations.
Read the full article in ReNew 131.
Andrew Reddaway considers whether there are savings to be found in financing your solar install.
“Save money from day one”—sounds pretty good doesn’t it? Several companies offer to finance your solar install, claiming that savings on your electricity bill will outweigh repayments so you will be better off. But how far ahead might you be?
Solar financing optionsREAD MORE »
For this article we looked at several options to pay for a solar system:
- pay upfront
- redraw from your mortgage
- unsecured finance
- Environmental Upgrade Agreement (EUA)
- Power Purchasing Agreement (PPA).
This option is only available if you have sufficient savings to draw on. The only finance-related cost is the ‘opportunity cost’: if you hadn’t spent the money on a solar system, you could have invested it instead and made a return. For example, you could have invested in a term deposit earning 3.7% per annum (before tax).
Redraw from mortgage
Home loans are secured by your house so the interest rate is low e.g. 6% per annum.
Many solar installers will offer finance, typically from an external funder. Separate finance is also available from financial institutions. If the loan is set up as a lease, the lender may be responsible for maintenance. Repayment amounts, durations and fees vary considerably, but the deals we’ve seen have effective annual interest rates ranging from 10% to 28%. Watch out for apparently cheap finance attached to an inflated system price, or direct debit fees that continue after you’ve repaid the loan.
Environmental upgrade agreement
Currently EUAs are offered by a few councils through targeted programs. The council lends you money (from an external finance organisation) and you pay it back via a special charge on your council rates. If you move out, the repayments are taken up by the new owner. This allows for cheap finance with long repayment periods.
Power purchasing agreement
Under a PPA you do not own the solar system. Instead its generation is metered and the solar installer bills you; for example, they might bill you 21c per kWh. You still get a bill from your grid energy retailer, but the total of the two bills should be less than your previous bill. There are several variations of PPA so watch out for issues such as moving house or roof damage. Also, what happens when you’re not home and the solar system is exporting to the grid? If you still have to pay the installer, then the solar system may actually be costing you money at those times.
Read the full article in ReNew 131.
Building a solar reticulation system
Martin Chape explains how he replaced a power-hungry bore pump with a low-cost solar unit and automated his watering system at the same time.
For some time I’d wanted to get rid of my power-hungry three-phase mains-operated bore pump, used to water my garden from the aquifer beneath my house. This forms part of a bigger plan to move all my 240 volt appliances off-grid. The large power drain of the three-phase bore pump would almost double the size of the inverter I’d need to go off-grid, even though it only gets used in summer, and then for just 15 minutes, three times a week.READ MORE »
So, I decided to replace it with a 24 volt DC bore pump run from solar PV. This pump fills a rainwater tank from the bore, using a float switch to turn the pump off when the tank is full. The resulting system can be completely automated and independent of utility-supplied water and electricity.
The pumps and tank
I ordered a 24 volt DC multistage submersible bore pump (a Kerry M243T-20) from a dealer on AliExpress, for US $178. This pump is class IP68 (fully dust and water tight; see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_Code), has a 25 mm outlet pipe, can pump to a head of 20 metres at 3000 litres per hour and draws 384 watts (at 24 volts that’s about 16 amps).
While waiting for the solar pump to arrive I removed the existing bore pump and sold it for $500. Using that as my starting capital, I hunted down a 2500 litre poly rainwater tank through Gumtree and, with the help of my neighbour, installed it on a brick and concrete foundation. I had first considered building an elevated tank stand, to provide water pressure from the height, but decided against this after reading a story of a home-built stand collapsing on someone. I also would have needed local government approval.
So the tank ended up on the ground and I purchased a second pump to move the water out of the tank to the garden. It’s a 24 volt DC submersible pump (US$35 from another AliExpress seller) with a single impeller (the spinning rotor that pushes the water), a 25 mm outlet pipe, 12 metre head capacity and it draws 120 watts. Oddly, it claims a flow rate of 8000 litres per hour compared to the 3000 litres of the bore pump.
[Ed note: Cheap devices bought directly from China can vary in quality; checking the seller’s feedback score and comments can assist, but as Martin’s experiences show, there can still be issues.]
When this pump arrived from China it had been damaged in transit so I ordered a second one and then contacted the supplier. The supplier was very good and supplied parts which I used to repair the first pump, which is now in my shed as a spare.
The solar bore pump then arrived and with the help of a friend I soon had it installed in the bore. It seemed to work initially, but then stopped after just 10 minutes.
I contacted the supplier in China but they claimed their pumps don’t fail. After many tests and emails, I removed the pump from the bore and made a video of it running in a container of water. The video clearly showed that it didn’t pump water but rather blew out smoke. Only then did the manufacturer agree to replace the pump—if I paid the shipping from China for the new one.
When the replacement bore pump arrived, I installed it in the bore and wired it through the float switch (a boat bilge switch) mounted upside down in the top of the rainwater tank. This switch turns the pump off when the tank is full.
Read the full article in ReNew 131.
Going off-grid slowly: a DIY project
Stan Baker dreams of ditching his energy company and going off-grid. He explains how he aims to achieve this, one step at a time.
The well-documented ‘gold plating’ of the poles and wires networks has meant rising service fees for consumers despite falling demand for delivered energy. My own electricity bills reflected this and caused me to seriously consider leaving the grid altogether. A further consideration was the increasingly disruptive weather being experienced around the country resulting in power outages caused by high winds and electrical storms. When attempting to be energy independent, however, the problem is the high cost of the batteries and other equipment necessary to generate and deliver electricity.READ MORE »
Being something of a DIY type, I considered what bits I had sitting around in my garage and what expertise I might have that could be relevant. A passion over the years for converting hybrid cars to plug-in hybrids meant I had a reasonable understanding of lithium batteries, including the management electronics needed to ensure their longevity. I also had a 1.5 kW, 12 VDC Latronics inverter acquired years earlier for some long-forgotten project. Naturally, I had the usual nerdy stuff such as miscellaneous electronic parts as well as some understanding of microcontrollers.
In effect, I had much of what was needed to deliver 240 VAC off-grid, but with one question unanswered: where was the input energy to come from?
My house has a flexible pricing plan from Origin that provides cheaper electricity between 11 pm and 7am. This meant I had a lower cost source of electricity for charging the batteries, at least for initial trialling. So, about six months ago I put together a simple system using lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries from an electric vehicle conversion that were down to around 50% of their original capacity and therefore unsuited for vehicular use.
The battery charger was a simple linear unit that used toroidal transformers. I had my fuse box modified so that the lights in the house could be powered either from the inverter or directly from the mains.
The original system was not particularly efficient and I estimated I was losing around 50% of the incoming energy, mainly due to the battery charger. However, it did keep my lights going during most nights and encouraged me to consider a more sophisticated battery storage system.
Read the full article in ReNew 131.
High rise block switches to solar
Residents in this high rise apartment block shared the cost of a 47.5kW solar system, costing around $230 upfront for each of the 290 owners.
READ MORE »
The owner’s corporation at a Docklands high-rise has installed the largest solar system ever retrofitted to a Melbourne apartment block.
The owners’ corporation at Yarra’s Edge Towers Two and Three in Lorimer Street took advantage of a $3000 rebate from the City of Melbourne and support from the national Smart Blocks program.
Councillor Arron Wood, Chair of the City of Melbourne’s Environment Portfolio said the initiative benefits the environment and the owner’s corporation.
“This huge 47.5kW solar system is the largest ever retrofitted to a Melbourne apartment block, with 190 solar panels converting sunlight into electricity. It’s not just the environment that is the winner here, it’s the 290 owners who will pay less to power the lighting and ventilation systems in their common areas,” said Cr Wood.
Owners Corporation member Peter Taylor said that while the system cost around $67,000, one of benefits of living in an apartment building is that costs are shared – around $230 upfront for each of the 290 owners.
“The final price was very affordable when we acted together and it’s an investment in the future value of the whole block. A lot of people think you can’t install solar in a high rise, but we’ve proved that you can and the savings are real,” Mr Taylor said.
Another medium rise apartment building in West Melbourne has installed a 10kW solar system that will save the owner’s corporation $2703 a year in electricity bills. A limited number of rebates of up to $3000 are still available for apartment buildings in the municipality to install solar electricity systems to power common areas.
Cr Wood said the Smart Blocks program supports the City of Melbourne’s goal to become a carbon neutral municipality by 2020. High-rise apartment dwellers consume more than 25 per cent more energy per person than those in a detached dwelling.
“To be a carbon neutral city by 2020 we need act smarter but we also need to empower residents to make our existing buildings more efficient,” Cr Wood said.
“Many of our residents are attracted to the inner city apartment lifestyle, but they also want to do their bit for the environment and reduce their power bills. This project shows apartment managers and owners can work together to improve the sustainability of their buildings,” said Cr Wood.
The solar systems were installed by commercial and residential solar installer Energy Matters with advice from Positive Charge. Find out more about Smart Blocks at www.smartblocks.com.au
Know your renewables: meter matters
In ReNew 126 we looked at electrical terms covering energy, power and other basic electrical concepts. Here, Lance Turner looks at common terms and concepts used to discuss energy metering and monitoring.
Whether your renewable energy system is grid-connected or off-grid, monitoring the system’s output is important to ensure it has a long and healthy life. Even if you don’t have a renewable energy system, understanding your energy usage is an important first step to becoming more energy efficient.READ MORE »
There are a range of meters and gauges for all these uses. Here, we look at the most common types of meters, what they show, how they work and any limitations.
First up is the electricity meter. These come in a number of types, including the older ‘spinning disk’ types and the more recent ‘smart meters’. The latter enable remote communications with your electricity retailer, so they don’t need to come out to read your meter, and provide much more fine-grained information on your electricity usage, including half-hourly data.
We’ve covered smart meters in detail in previous issues of ReNew (for example, ReNew 124) and in the ATA’s Smart Meter Consumer Guide (www.bit.ly/ATASMCG), so we won’t go into them in detail here. Suffice to say that both older meters and smart meters record electricity usage over a period in kilowatt-hours.
Interaction of your electricity meter with a grid-connected PV system
It’s important to note that most electricity meters now use net metering. A net meter will show electricity you imported from the grid and exported to the grid, but not the electricity your PV system generated that was used on-site. Some states originally used gross metering, which showed all electricity generated and all electricity used, but this has now been phased out in all states (though some older systems will still have this type of meter).
Net metering leads to an issue in calculating the total energy you are generating and using. To get these figures, you need to use the metering that comes with your renewable energy system, usually available both as a display meter and as a set of data that can be stored and downloaded from your inverter. Even if your system uses microinverters (small individual inverters attached to each panel), this data will usually be available through the microinverter manufacturer’s web portal.
Your inverter will provide you with the total PV generation figure (over a period of time), while your electricity meter will provide you with the energy imported from and exported to the grid. To calculate the total amount of electricity consumed by your house, simply add the import and generation figures and subtract the amount exported.
Read the full article in ReNew 130