In ‘Lighting’ Category
A recycling round-up
Lance Turner considers the evolving recycling options for some of the common technologies in households: solar panels, lights and batteries.
Solar panel recycling
Up until recently there have been no official schemes for recycling solar panels in Australia. However, as the number of broken and otherwise failed panels begins to grow, so has the need for recycling.
But how much solar panel waste is there at present, and what are we looking at down the track when the current explosion of solar panel installations come to the end of their working life?
Although figures are hard to come by, one typical example is that of Japan, which has seen considerable growth in PV installations in recent years. According to the Japanese Ministry of the Environment, by 2040 770,000 tonnes of solar panels will need to be recycled. The ministry has stated that, in conjunction with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and industry organisations, it will begin to implement measures for “removal, transportation and processing of solar power generation equipment” before the end of this fiscal year, in March 2016 (from www.bit.ly/1PwRFfC).
In Europe, requirements have already been added to the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directive, bringing in a take-back and recycling scheme to deal with solar panel waste. The program, PV Cycle (www.pvcycle.org), provides fixed collection points, collection services for large quantities, and collection via distributors.
The WEEE directive means that solar panel manufacturers not only have to ensure collection and recycling of their products when they have reached their end of life, they will also be required to ensure the financial future of PV waste management.
Looking at Australia, there is currently (as of March 2015) 4.1 GW of installed capacity of solar PV. Assuming around 250 watts per panel (a common size), that’s around 16 million solar panels. With an approximate weight of 18 kg per panel, you are looking at 288,000 tonnes of solar panels, or around 11,500 tonnes per year (assuming a lifespan of 25 years) needing to be recycled. Of course, many PV panels will have a greater lifespan, while other, lesser quality panels will die sooner, so these figures are really just ballpark.
Regardless, that’s a great deal of materials needing to be recycled, most of which is glass, silicon cells (a glass-like material) and aluminium.
Aluminium framing is easily recycled in existing aluminium smelters. However, without a system of collection, transportation and dismantling of solar panels, these materials are currently going to waste, usually ending up in landfill.
Read the full article in ReNew 133.
New choices in lighting: An LED buyers guide
The move to LED lighting has become mainstream, with more options appearing constantly. Lance Turner takes a look at what’s available.
For many homes, lighting is one of the most overlooked aspects. Incorrect lighting can make a room unpleasant to be in, or make it more difficult to perform tasks such as reading or cooking. Getting it right can take a bit of effort, and though this guide won’t answer all your questions about lighting design, hopefully it will give you a headstart when thinking about the types of lighting to use and the questions to ask.READ MORE »
With almost all lighting technology moving towards LEDs, this guide focuses on LED bulbs. Even the reasonably efficient technologies such as fluorescent tubes and compact fluorescent lamps are rapidly being replaced by LED lighting. It’s likely that within 10 years, most other light sources will have disappeared in favour of the robustness, longevity and energy efficiency of LEDs.
What is an LED?
LEDs (light emitting diodes) are unlike any other lighting system. They contain no glass tubes or heating filaments, instead using a small piece of semiconductor material (as used in computer chips) that emits light directly when a current is passed through it.
LEDs produce light in a range of colours, without the need for coloured filters; thus, to get white light, a phosphor is used over a blue or UV LED chip, similar to what’s used in a fluorescent tube.
Note that the LED is actually the small light producing element(s) in a light bulb or fitting, but most people now erroneously refer to LEDs as the entire bulb or fitting.
There are a number of specifications that are useful to consider when buying LED lights.
All light bulbs have a wattage rating, which measures how much power they consume. This is where LEDs have a shining advantage over older, more inefficient technologies. For domestic LED lights, the rating is usually between one and 20 watts, compared to a typical incandescent rating of 25 to 100 watts.
Light output: lumens, LUX and beam angle
Many LED bulbs include an ‘equivalent-to’ wattage rating, showing the wattage of the incandescent bulb that the LED bulb is equivalent to in terms of light output. For example, a six watt LED bulb might be rated as putting out the same amount of light as a 50 watt incandescent.
This ‘equivalent-to’ rating is based on the light output in lumens. The lumen rating of an LED bulb, usually included on the packaging, measures the total light output, relative to the response of the human eye.
For bulbs that are suitable for general room lighting—those with wide beam angles, above 60 degrees, but preferably 90 degrees or more—matching lumens for lumens should give you the result you need. Thus, for these types of lights (these are generally found in the common Edison screw, bayonet or ‘oyster’ fittings), the ‘equivalent-to’ rating should be all you need to determine if the bulb is a suitable replacement.
For directional lights, often known as spot lights, it’s a bit different. These are lights with a smaller beam angle, up to around 60 degrees. Such lights are generally used for task lighting, directed onto a desk or work area. Halogen downlights are an example of these—it’s because of their small beam angle that so many of them were needed to light a room! For these spot lights, small differences in the beam angle can make a big difference in how bright the light appears. Many people have had the experience of buying an LED bulb which was meant to be equivalent to a 50 watt halogen, but found that it appears much less bright. The lumens may have been lower, but more likely the beam angle was narrower, creating a bright light directly under the light but darker patches around it.
Read the full article in ReNew 133.
Downlight transformers: The good, the bad, and the very inefficient
Not all halogen downlight transformers are created equal when using them with retrofit LED globes. Alfred Howell explains how the wrong transformers can be costing you money.
With the retrofitting of LED downlight bulbs to MR16 halogen fittings, households have seen great efficiency gains and cost savings.
However, if you change your bulbs to low-power LEDs but don’t check the transformers, you may be wasting energy. Many of the older downlight fittings use ferromagnetic (iron core) transformers. While simple, they are inefficient compared to modern electronic replacements. To determine the extent of losses in these transformers I performed some simple testing.
Testing and results
I tested a typical ferromagnetic transformer alongside an Osram Redback electronic transformer. Both transformers were tested, with and without a Brightgreen DR700 retrofit LED globe. A Power-Mate Lite energy meter was used to measure power draw.
||Type||No globe, or globe blown||10.5W globe fitted|
Table 1. Energy consumption of electronic versus ferromagnetic transformers,
with and without a load (globe) fitted.
As can be seen in Table 1, the electronic transformer performs well with or without the globe. While it seems a bit pointless to test a transformer without a globe fitted, it’s actually a good indicator of the efficiency, or otherwise, of each transformer. Compare the electronic transformer’s 0.38 W draw without a globe with the ferromagnetic transformer’s draw of an extra five watts. Indeed, the ferromagnetic transformer uses an extra five watts more than the electronic transformer with or without the globe’s load.
While that doesn’t sound like much, it’s not uncommon to find 20 or more downlights in a home. With all 20 lights on, that would be an extra 100 watts burning a hole in your wallet—or 0.5 kWh if they’re on five hours a day.
Solutions and options
To reduce this energy use, the cheapest option is to swap the ferromagnetic transformers for electronic ones when you retrofit. They are low cost, usually under $15, and available from electrical wholesalers and lighting stores. Alternatively, you could upgrade the halogen fittings to dedicated LED downlight fittings with an incorporated driver.
An even better option is to remove the downlights altogether in places where suitable. Downlights compromise ceiling insulation as they must be uninsulated to prevent the fitting from overheating. Also, many downlights, even LED ones, have a fairly narrow beam angle and so tend to produce pools of light. To get high ambient lighting levels requires a greater total wattage from downlights or a light fitting with a wider dispersion, such as an oyster fitting.
It’s clear that changing the globe as part of an energy saving makeover is only part of the solution. For maximum efficiency and results, the whole lighting system, and how the system is used, needs to be evaluated. This includes behavioural changes such as turning lights off when not in use. With a bit of effort, you will be amazed at the savings that can be realised.
Alfred Howell has years of experience managing complex machines, which he reckons puts him in a terrific position to understand how we can work as part of this complex machine we call Earth.
For more great articles like this buy ReNew 133.
Designing a house to be as energy efficient as possible is one thing; actually achieving this can be another task altogether. Meg Warren and Fraser Rowe describe their building challenges and eventual rewards.
OUR quest to build a new sustainable home began about four years ago when we purchased vacant land in cool-climate Beechworth in north-east Victoria. We wanted a sizeable block, big enough for rainwater tanks and a small edible garden, but also walking distance from shops, cafes and work. But our most important criterion was solar access. We found just such a block with the added bonus of a well-grown oak to the west, offering summer shade. The real estate agent seemed not to notice these attributes: to them the block was just a problem to sell due to its odd shape and no services.READ MORE »
Shifting from a rural property of 18 acres to an urban block of less than 1000 m2 brought a number of challenges. Our design was limited by council regulations, fences and boundaries, as well as a high, dense hedge on our neighbour’s property to the east.
To help us achieve a truly energy-efficient design we engaged building designer Tracey Toohey whom we’d worked with on our previous owner-built rammed-earth house.
Tracey asked us to rate three areas to indicate our level of commitment to sustainability in the build. The first rated our desire for energy efficiency against overall cost. The second, and more difficult for us, assessed the compromise between sustainable materials and efficiency, and the third, between sustainable materials and cost. This interesting exercise helped us clarify our goals.
We worked intensively with Tracey for months, honing the design. Thought went into the glazing type and size to balance it with the floor area, together with the placement, type and amount of internal thermal mass, creation of airlocks, height of ceilings and all the other dimensions that impact on the energy rating. We also allowed for wider than usual walls to fit in more insulating layers beyond the standard 90 mm bulk insulation. Attention was given to the need for summer shading, rainwater harvesting and greywater recycling.
Read the full article in ReNew 127.
Back to basics: reducing your energy use and saving money
Along with the Victorian Council of Social Service and with the support of the Melbourne Lord Mayor’s Charitable Foundation, the ATA is publishing a guide to energy efficiency on a budget. Laura McLeod gives us a preview.
With energy prices set to rise considerably over the next few years, now is the time to seriously consider inexpensive technology items and behaviour changes that could make a significant difference to your energy bills. No matter whether you’re a home owner or a home renter, and whatever your income level, you can make changes to your home to make it more comfortable, save energy and money, and reduce your environmental impact.READ MORE »
Here is a preview of some of the guide’s top energy efficiency tips.
Switch off lights when the room is not in use and change to energy-efficient light bulbs to make a big difference to your electricity bills.
Replace incandescent light bulbs: Replace your old-style light bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or light emitting diode (LED) bulbs. Both CFLs and LEDs are much cheaper to run—they can reduce running costs by up to 75% and 90%, respectively, paying for their higher purchase price in a few months. They also last much longer than incandescent bulbs. LED bulbs are becoming more readily available; despite their higher shelf price, they are generally more efficient than CFLs and can last for up to 50,000 hours—that’s over 22 years at six hours’ use per day!
Don’t use halogen downlights: If your house is full of energy-hungry halogen downlights, replace them with good-quality LED bulbs or complete LED fittings. Halogen downlights are a very inefficient type of lighting, with 90% or more of the energy used by the globe lost as heat.
Heating and cooling
Heating and cooling are among the most energy-hungry aspects of running a home, but it doesn’t take much effort to reduce their impact.
Use heating and air conditioning wisely: Reducing the temperature on the thermostat of your heater or increasing it on your air conditioner by just 1°C can reduce the energy used by 10%. In winter, set the heater thermostat to a maximum of 18–20°C; in summer set your air conditioner to a minimum of 26°C.Read the full article in ReNew 120 or download the guide here.
Sydney’s LED switch for a brighter future
Lights on for Sydney as it has become the first city in Australia to switch to energy-efficient LED lights. By Laura McLeod.
The City of Sydney has embarked on an exciting roll-out of new energy-efficient LED street and park lights. The installation of LED lights across the city centre sees it join other major cities such as Los Angeles, Barcelona and Berlin in the endeavour for a greener, more sustainable future.READ MORE »
Installation has begun on the first set of LED lights on George Street, in front of Sydney Town Hall. Following a successful 18 month trial in Alexandria Park, Kings Cross, Martin Place and Circular Quay, the LED roll-out is a $7 million, three year project.
In the public survey conducted after the trial, 90 per cent of people said the new lighting appealed, with three-quarters saying it improved visibility.
LED lights are made up of a semi-conductor material and consequently reduce emissions and halve energy use. “Replacing 6,450 conventional lights will save nearly $800,000 a year in electricity bills and maintenance costs,” said City of Sydney Lord Mayor Clover Moore.
The LED lights require far less electricity and last much longer, reducing the 30 per cent contribution public lighting previously made to Sydney’s greenhouse gas emissions. This is equivalent to 2861 tonnes or taking 940 cars off the road.
Sustainable Sydney plans
Sydney has positioned itself as Australia’s first carbon neutral city, and set out in the Sustainable Sydney 2030 Plan an ambitious target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 70 per cent, based on 2006 levels.
To achieve this target, the UK energy expert Allan Jones has been appointed to lead the project. His previous work reduced greenhouse gas emissions in the city of Woking, Surrey by 80 per cent.
Sydney will be transformed into a low carbon city powered by trigeneration systems and renewable energy. As well as electricity supply, trigeneration can also heat and cool buildings, and is three times more efficient than current systems.
Adding to the beauty of the plan is the capacity to add a decentralised water system and an automated waste collection process.
The plan stretches beyond council sites to household strategies and also includes supplying affordable housing to the residents of Sydney, in an environmentally sustainable way.
Sydney’s switch to LED lighting is a significant decision as Australia moves to a low carbon future. “Sydney’s leadership provides a clear signal to other Australian councils: LED technology is ready,” said Caroline Bayliss from the Climate Group.
Making my home free from the grid
Martin Chape has made an independent power supply for his lights and home office. Next it will be the whole home as he tries to escape his electricity retailer.
As a semi-retired engineer I have always dabbled in technical projects and probably always will. This latest project came about when my electricity retailer Synergy cut the rate paid per kilowatt-hour of electricity sent to the grid to 7c per kWh, to coincide with the introduction of the West Australian government’s feed-in tariff in 2010.READ MORE »
The thought that, after my solar feed-in tariff ended in ten years, my system would become merely a cheap generator supplying all the local air conditioners at a profit to my power company annoyed me. Especially as I would have to fund any maintenance to the solar PV system from my pension.
So I decided not to invest further in additional grid-connect panels but rather, to put my dollars into making my home office totally independent of the grid. I built an off-grid solar power system with 12 volt battery storage, supplying a 240 volt inverter at the lowest cost possible.
Online shopping for parts
I sourced a pair of new 6 volt deep cycle lead-acid batteries from a local retailer. The brand was Interstate Batteries model GC2-HD-UTL, with a capacity of 216 amp-hours each. I purchased a 200 watt, 12 volt monocrystalline solar panel for $500 from eBay store LHP Power, which came with a 25-year warranty, and found a low cost 10 amp solar controller from a Chinese eBay supplier.
The solar controller has three sets of connectors, one for the PV panel, one for the load, and the third for the battery bank. The solar controller prevents overcharging the batteries, unwanted discharge of the batteries through the PV system at night, and disconnects the load to prevent battery damage if it becomes run down.
After purchasing a couple of low cost 800 watt 12-240 volt inverters from another Chinese eBay store I was ready to roll with my first system.Read the full article in ReNew 119.
New choices in lighting – An LED buyers guide
There’s been a lot more happening on the LED front since we last looked at lighting options. With most lighting set to switch to LEDs in the next few years, Lance Turner takes a look at what’s available so far.
For many people, lighting is one of the most important aspects of their home. Incorrect lighting can make a room uncomfortable to be in, and getting it right can take a bit of effort.READ MORE »
There’s a vast array of light fittings and lighting systems available, and a number of lighting technologies including the horribly inefficient but very popular incandescent, the halogen (a glorified, slightly more efficient incandescent), the fluorescent, compact fluorescent, and more recently, Light Emitting Diode, or LED.
With almost all lighting technology moving towards LEDs, this guide will primarily focus on LED technology. In 10 to 20 years, most other light sources will have disappeared in favour of the robustness, longevity and energy efficiency of LEDs.
Types of lighting
When considering lights and light fittings, you need to decide what type of lighting you want for each situation.
Lighting generally falls into four categories—general illumination, task lighting, ambient/mood lighting, and outdoor lighting. The degree of intensity will depend on personal preference and the colour of the walls and furnishings. Darker walls generally need more light to achieve the same level of perceived brightness as lighter walls.
General illumination can be of a fairly low level—enough to easily see by, but not so bright that the whole room becomes suitable for reading. However, this is a personal preference and many people like to be able to light the entire room brightly when needed, whereas others may opt for a combination of low level general lighting and small task lights near their chairs for reading.
Mood lighting may also be a concern and needs to be considered at the planning stage. The house may have a feature that would benefit from a well placed spotlight or uplighter, but lights like these are often left on for long periods and can consume a great deal of energy if the wrong lighting is used.
Garden lighting is generally either floodlighting or feature lighting, where particular plants or garden furnishings are lit individually, often by coloured lamps, for effect.
Zero energy options
While this article deals with electric lighting, there are a couple of other options that should be considered. Skylights and light pipe systems can provide more than adequate lighting levels with no use of electricity at all and, if well placed, won’t heat the room unnecessarily.
Another option is fitting reflectors to already installed fittings. Fluorescent fittings can particularly benefit from a reflector. Indeed, fitting a reflector behind a single tri-phosphor tube can result in lighting levels equal to using two cheaper quality tubes with no reflectors. This means that combining a reflector and good quality tube can effectively halve lighting energy consumption.
Energy, power and voltage
Which brings us to one of the most confusing aspects of lighting for many people.
Many lamps, particularly halogen downlights, are sold as ‘low voltage’, with the packaging implying that this equates to low energy consumption. This is rubbish. The important factor is the power rating of the lamp. Fifty watts is 50 watts, regardless of the voltage it is supplied and used at. A 12 volt bulb uses a 240 volt to 12 volt transformer to run it, so this transformer will draw 50 watts to run the bulb, plus a bit of extra that is lost in the transformer as heat.
So, when comparing bulb energy consumption, you must look at the wattage, not the voltage.Read the full article in ReNew 119.
Energy saving products guide
We all have to reduce energy use, carbon price or not. Lance Turner identifies the home energy use culprits and nominates the best appliances, gadgets and DIY options for an energy smart home.
Okay, so you think you are relatively energy efficient, but those energy bills just keep going up. The cost of energy isn’t going to fall any time soon, so the trick is to simply use less without making life harder or more complex.READ MORE »
There’s many things that can be done to reduce energy use. We are surrounded by ‘stuff’ that uses energy, but does it really have to use as much as it does? Are there better options, and what should you look for when upgrading?
While many would argue that we could all do with having fewer gadgets and gizmos (and that’s a valid argument), the world has become an electronic one and that isn’t likely to change any time in the near future. So, given that, we should try to reduce the energy used by all these gadgets as much as possible.
Where the energy goes
So just where does all the energy that your home and its appliances use actually go to? Figure 1a, below, shows a breakdown for the average Australian home (Baseline energy estimates from Australian Greenhouse Office, 2008).
The biggest energy user is heating and cooling, followed by water heating and ‘other appliances’, which covers pretty much every appliance and device in your home except cooking and refrigeration. It also excludes standby loads, which is listed separately. A standby load is the energy used by an appliance when it is not being used for the task it was designed for. For instance, when your microwave is sitting there displaying the clock but not cooking, the energy it is using is the standby use.
But it’s not just about energy use, but also the greenhouse gas emissions from that energy use that must be considered. After all, some energy sources are much cleaner than others.
Read the full article in ReNew 117
New uses for old phone chargers
New electronic devices usually come with a charger or power supply. But what happens to those power supplies when the appliance dies and you buy a new one? Lance Turner shows how to reuse them for some simple but resourceful lighting projects.
The power supplies that come with most small appliances, such as mobile phones, are generally very similar. They are usually rated somewhere between 5 volts and 12 volts and may have current outputs up to about 2 amps.READ MORE »
Power supplies of this type may not seem very useful, but you can in fact use them to drive LEDs for lighting with very little effort. What’s more, if you match the LED voltage to your power supply output voltage you can end up with a quite high overall system efficiency.
It should be mentioned here that there are two common types of power supplies. The first is the older type that uses a heavy iron core transformer. These are usually unregulated and their output voltage is dependent on the load placed on them. For instance, a 12 volt supply might actually produce around 18 volts with no load. This variable output makes them a little harder to use. What’s more, the efficiency of this type of supply can be quite low, so they are often not a good candidate for reuse in this manner. Fortunately, most manufacturers are changing over to switchmode power supplies.
Switchmode supplies are generally regulated so that their rated voltage is the voltage that you get out of them. Also, their efficiencies are usually better than 75% at their rated load. Like most plugpacks, switchmode power supplies have isolated outputs, which allows you to connect multiple supplies in series to get higher voltages.
The easiest way to tell which type of supply you have is by the size and weight. Iron core power supplies have a large and heavy transformer inside so they are usually bulky and heavy for their rated output. Switchmode supplies are much smaller and lighter in most cases.
So how do you use your old power supplies for driving LEDs? Let’s look at an example to explain how to match the LED voltage to the power supply.
You might have a spare 12 volt, 500mA power supply. This is ideal for driving three 1 watt white LEDs connected in series. A single LED might have a forward voltage of around 3.5 volts. Three LEDs in series adds up to 10.5 volts, so any simple current limiting driver (such as a linear driver or resistor) only needs to drop around 1.5 volts (LEDs are current driven devices, so you must have some form of current limiting).
This means that the LEDs receive 85% of the power coming out of the power supply. If the plugpack has an efficiency of 80%, then the overall efficiency of the plugpack/LED driver setup is 0.85 x 0.8 = 68%. In the scheme of things, this doesn’t seem that high, but if you calculate the total efficiency of power input to light output, you will find that your home-made LED light can be more efficient than most domestic lighting systems.
For instance, if high efficiency LEDs such as Q5 bin Cree XR-Es, which have an efficacy of over 100 lumens per watt, are used, then the light fitting could have an efficacy of around 70 lumens per watt overall. This is better than almost all domestic lighting systems except strip fluoros.
LED driving options
So what are the options for driving LEDs in such applications? LED drivers fall into two categories: switchmode drivers and linear drivers.Read the full article in ReNew 109
Do-it-yourself: Bringing sunlight indoors
There’s no doubt that the ultimate lighting is sunlight, but how do you light a room that is unable to have a skylight fitted? Lance Turner takes a look at how it’s done.
It’s not always easy to bring the sun indoors, but with a little ingenuity, it can be done. There are several methods that can be used to transfer light from your roof to a room needing a bit of brightening up.READ MORE »
The first method is the common skylight. These usually consist of a transparent or translucent panel in the roof and a corresponding diffuser panel in the room directly below it. The space between the roof panel and the ceiling diffuser is usually enclosed to make a duct. The skylight may be vented to help eliminate heat ingress while allowing in the light.
A skylight is the simplest solution where the room to be lit is directly below the roof. However, there are situations where this isn’t the case and another option is required.
Light doesn’t have to move in a straight line from the roof panel to the room diffuser. If you need to separate the two panels by a short distance horizontally then you can use a ducted system. These use an internally reflective duct or tube to bounce the light from the roof collector to the room diffuser. They can be thought of as a crude fibre optic system and can be quite effective in getting the light where it’s needed. The Solatube system is a good example of these.
Both the direct lighting and the ducted type skylights are quite common in Australia and are readily available. If you think your home could benefit from fitting a skylight or light duct or two (or three) then pick up the phone book, there are plenty of manufacturers and installers listed there.
There are times when the room to be lit is far away from any suitable roof area, such as when it is on the ground floor of a multi-storey building. While this may seem impossible to solve, it is in fact quite easy with the use of fibre optic cable.Read the full article in ReNew 108
Dumping the halogens
Lance Turner looks at a LED retrofit that improved illumination with a huge reduction in energy use.
When we decided to take a look at a downlight retrofit to eliminate halogens from a home, we asked around the office if anyone had recently done this. Amazingly, no-one had, but one staff member did have an investment property that had halogen downlights and was slated for upgrading. So, together we sat down and worked out the best option for the upgrade.READ MORE »
The aim of the retrofit was to eliminate not only halogens, but fluorescent lamps as well. While fluoros use a great deal less energy than halogens and produce much less heat, they do have drawbacks, such as a long start-up time to reach full brightness, and of course the tubes contain small amounts of the very toxic metal mercury. So, of course, we were aiming to change the lighting to LEDs.
The first step was to find out what LED options were available. This retrofit had to be done to a budget, but it also had to be done to a level of quality, so it was important to find the most suitable solution rather than opting for what was easiest to get. Of course, the best way to find out what’s out there is to look online, and after considerable searching and a number of phone calls, we put together a list of the most viable options.
In the end it was decided that standard Crompton CFL downlight fittings would be used, with the CFLs replaced by LED bulbs. The final tally was eight of the ZetaLux warm whites, along with two EvoLux warm whites, which would be spare bulbs in case the tenants needed some extra light in the kitchen area. Both of these bulbs come from EarthLED and have UL listing and FCC approval. While that doesn’t mean much to Australian authorities, it shows the bulbs have been tested and approved elsewhere.Read the full article in ReNew 111